Category Archives: Trucking

Five Rules for Optimizing Job Ads for Drivers

Searching for the finest experienced drivers in the trucking industry, the best piece of advertising is your job ad. Putting up the right job description makes all the difference, especially in the quality of the candidates you see.

great job adOptimizing driver job ads does not have to be a difficult process. In fact, when you know the elements of an effective job ad, creating them will certainly become second nature.

Great job ads give your business a wealth of benefits:

  • More choices—the immediate benefit of a well-optimized job ad is attracting a larger pool of qualified drivers. This increases your chances of finding just the right driver to have behind the wheel.
  • Time efficiency—without having to contend with a flood of unqualified applicants, you waste less of your valuable time by focusing on only the most relevant applicants.
  • Higher loyalty—an optimized job ad will produce better hires, more reliable and better performing drivers. Your employee drivers will be the best representatives of your brand.
  • More bang for your advertising buck—optimized job ads do not cost more than weak ads, but they do give you significantly higher returns.

To find your next great driver, follow these rules of the road

There are five rules when optimizing job ads in search for drivers; they are the advertising secrets to have your next driver job ad rise to the head of the pack. Use these rules, and you will win the biggest prize—high-quality drivers that make your business shine:

#1: BE Specific With Headlines

When placing job openings, your biggest challenge is visibility. To fill a job opening immediately with the right person, the job must stand out amid thousands of similar ads saying essentially the same thing.

The problem with a majority of job descriptions is that they are simply too vague.

With online job searches for drivers, candidates often fall victim to “advertising blindness.” This is a natural tendency for viewers of a web page to ignore much of the information—either consciously or unconsciously.

The way to prevent this natural tendency is to be as specific as possible. Short and descriptive titles will resonate with your targeted audience. Instead of a generic and bland “Truck Driver Wanted,” give your job description some detail (and pizazz) with “Company Driver CDL Class A (Jefferson County).

#2: BE Unique

Your trucking company should provide drivers something exceptional—a Unique Selling Proposition (USP). Discover one thing that will set you apart from the multitude of competing voices, and use it to be memorable to job seekers.

Let the USP of your business become one of your best driver recruitment tools. Give drivers something substantial to talk about and driver word-of-mouth will do the rest.

Some of the most effective USP’s:

  • Industry Awards
  • Better Benefits
  • More home time
  • New or upgraded trucks/equipment
  • Signing bonuses

#3: BE Simple

The easiest rule to remember in optimization job ads—KISS (Keep It Simple Stupid).

The best drivers have more choices than unqualified drivers. They certainly don’t have time to waste. Long-winded and complex job ads will lose the attention of the reader quickly, as well as limit response rates.

Above all, for a job ad to be effective, it has to appeal to qualified candidates. Short, clear and descriptive ads will pique the interest of the right candidate. Leave out the fluff—and save extraneous details for a face-to-face interview.

#4: BE Urgent

Any advertising pro will tell you—ads need urgency to be effective. A job ad should stress how your business needs the right driver, right now:

  • Emphasize the current pricing (pay per mile or signing bonus)
  • Remind the reader of the limited amount of driving positions available (using specific numbers)
  • Promote hiring deadlines (specific date or number of days)

#5: BE Credible

In today’s interconnected world, informational social influence—called “social proof”—is one of the most powerful forces to transform lookers into buyers. This phenomenon increases the value within the marketplace or industry as well with. Companies use social proof to turn job seekers into interested candidates and applicants.

An experienced driver doesn’t care much what you have to say about your company, but they will listen to what others have to say about you. The biggest assets in hiring new drivers are your current drivers.

Use social proof to optimize a driver job ad in a number of ways:

  • Accreditation and awards from well-respected  and credible professional organizations (i.e. CSA awards)
  • Testimonials from current drivers
  • Mentions, articles and reviews in leading media

Optimizing your job ad is an essential part of hiring and managing quality drivers. A properly written job ad—no matter where you place it—will ensure both applicants and employees understand their roles, how they are accountable in their jobs, and exactly how valuable they are to your company and its success.


Top 5 Most Expensive Areas in the US to Recruit Truck Drivers

There is no doubt; things are certainly beginning to get better for tractor-trailer and other heavy equipment drivers. It also means that in some areas of the country finding the right people to place behind the wheel has become more of a challenge.

Truck driver wagesAccording to the most recent job figures from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, unemployment rates in the transportation industry dropped to just above 9 percent in the past 12 months. That still might be higher than the national average (around 7.8 percent), but these job numbers are showing a picture better than it was at its peak, when it hovered above 10 percent.

Truckers: Valuable Part of the American Economy

In 2012, more than 90,000 Americans have found jobs in the transportation industry in the past year. Add to that the fact that trucking accounts carry 80 percent of all consumer goods, and you have an extremely valuable portion of the American economy.

The area of the transportation industry that employs the most individuals is General Freight Trucking, which includes heavy and tractor-trailer drivers. Nearly 600,000 drivers represent more than 62 percent of the entire transportation industry.

In addition, tractor-trailer driver income is getting better. In 2013, they can now expect an average hourly wage of more than $20 per hour, with an annual mean wage for $41,680. In May of 2010, the median annual earnings of heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers were only $37,770.

Higher Competition Equals Higher Driver Wages

When considering which areas of the country are the “most expensive” places for a trucking company to hire drivers, two factors happen to be the most important: industry employment rates and relative wages.

For most trucking companies, the main issue is higher pay. Companies looking to recruit in certain geographic areas will have to spend more money to attract qualified drivers. Higher wages equals greater competition for the right people to get behind the wheel of their vehicles (or to hire independent contractors).

That makes finding the right employees in any geographic area is a double-edged sword. On one hand, there are certain regions that pose a higher challenge for trucking companies. On the other, those same regions (for the most part) pay drivers the highest and have the greatest numbers of companies clamoring to find qualified truckers.

Top five most expensive places in the U.S. for a company to recruit drivers:

#5: Eastern Illinois/Chicago

To hire drivers in the Chicago metropolitan area, it’s going to cost a company more money than almost any other region in the contiguous 48 states (more about that later).

The Chicago metro area, which includes Joliet and Naperville, ranks highest on the list. The area offers drivers an hourly mean wage of $23.96, equating to an annual median salary of nearly $50,000.

#4: Texas

Everything is bigger in Texas, especially the heavy tractor-trailer industry. There are certainly more truckers in Texas than anywhere else. With the highest number of drivers per thousand jobs, the competition for qualified truckers in Texas is fierce.

On a bright note, the average driver pay in Texas is slightly below average, at just above $40,000 per year. This makes the Lone Star State a relative bargain, compared to others on this list.

#3: Southern California

Texas may be bigger than California in size, when it comes to finding highly qualified drivers; the Southern California sunshine just might beat the Texas heat. Between the Los Angeles and Riverside-San Bernardino metropolitan areas, a combination of high trucker employment and the overall number of trucker jobs is more than 30 percent below the U.S. average.

For companies in the transportation industry, this means it will take considerably more effort to find qualified truck drivers looking for work than in other parts of the country. However, trucking wages are right at the national average at $41,500 annually.

#2: Joplin, MO

Southern California transportation industry may have its challenges for business looking for qualified employees; however, Joplin, Missouri deserves specific mention. Of any single city (as opposed to a geographic region) in the United States, Joplin has (by far) the most number of employed truckers as a percentage of total jobs. Six percent of ALL JOBS in Joplin are in the heavy and tractor-trailer industry, making it a paradise for truckers, but a headache for companies looking to avoid having to outbid other businesses for the best on-the-road talent.

The bottom line is that if you are a big-rig driver in Joplin, chances are you already have a decent job, and are not looking to change.  To attract drivers, a company will have to pay quite a bit more than the regional average of $46,000 a year.

#1: Alaska

Compared to anywhere in the entire U.S., drivers have it the best in the Great White North. The good life for truckers suggests trucking companies can expect to be hit the hardest (at least financially) when finding qualified employees in the area.

Alaska has relatively low trucker unemployment as well as a high “location quotient,” where the concentration of workers in that occupation is significantly higher than the national average.

What puts Alaska tops of the list is not one, but two of the highest paying cities for heavy tractor-trailer drivers in the entire U.S.  Fairbanks tops the entire country in average wages for driver pay, with the highest per hour wage of $25.27, and drivers can expect an average annual salary of more than $52,500. Anchorage also makes the top five in gross wages, with average hourly earnings of $24.31.

The BEST place to find tractor-trailer drivers in the United States is…


With one of lowest average annual salaries for heavy and tractor-trailer drivers—a “bargain basement” $36,310—Florida also has one of the lowest percentages of trucking jobs in the region. Those numbers make Florida the place to beat for have best chances of hiring qualified truckers at a reasonable salary.

What’s more, the economic recovery from the 2008 downturn is beginning to gain steam in the Sunshine State.  The April 2013 overall unemployment numbers came in at 7.2 percent, much lower than the national average.

For trucking companies in the need for well-qualified drivers, especially in the Southeast U.S., the numbers show that the time to hire skilled drivers in Florida is right now. Act quickly and you will see the best “bang” for your employment dollar!

Are You Ready for New Federal Rules on Hours-Of-Service?

For long-haul truckers, the ideal safety strategy is a rested, refreshed and alert driver. It’s the only real way to prepare for whatever happens on the road.

Road safety is also the reason the federal government limits driver’s hours-of-service (HOS). You don’t need to be a rocket scientist to know that too many consecutive hours without a rest break cause the chances of a serious accident go way up.

truck driver asleep at the wheel


With that in mind, some changes have been underway for the trucking industry, and the compliance deadline is fast approaching—important updates to the federal rules regarding driver HOS.

Starting July 1, the last final rule provisions from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) go into effect governing trucker HOS.


FMSCA used six public listening sessions to help develop the new regulations, calling on a wide range of experts, as well as the newest research into driver fatigue.

New rules on hours driven in a workweek

The final rules on HOS reduce the maximum time drivers can work within a week by 12 hours. Previously, they could drive up to an average of up to 82 hours within a seven-day period.

Now a driver workweek is limited to no more than 70 hours.

The first definitions for on-duty times became effective February 2012. July 1 is the final compliance date for the remainder of the new rules.

Revised definitions for on-duty time

Under the new rules, team drivers must log as off-duty up to 2 hours in the passenger seat, either directly before or after the 8-hour time spent in the sleeper berth.

Additionally, time drivers spend resting in or on a parked commercial vehicle is not considered on-duty time.

New insights into driver safety are the reason for the change in regulations. Designed to reduce the risk of driver fatigue, the rules limit the number of hours worked, either close to or at the maximum. Long daily and weekly hours lead to an increased risk of accidents, as well as chronic health conditions brought on by lack of sleep.

The main purpose of the rule change is to reduce the risk of fatigue and related collisions. In addition, it hopes to curb the negative effects on driver health after long hours on the road.

Rest periods when the body needs the most rest

To maximize weekly work hours, drivers need to take a minimum two nights rest when from 1:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m.—the time when research shows that the body needs sleep the most. This is now part of a “34-hour restart” provision, which can allow drivers to “restart” their workweek by taking a minimum of 34 consecutive hours off-duty. This restart provision can be used only once during a seven-day period.

Truck drivers cannot work eight hours without taking at least a 30-minute break first. However, at any time during the eight-hour window, drivers can get a 30-minute break.

The current 11-hour daily driving limit remains in effect. FMCSA continues to conduct data analysis, and research to assess the risks associated with 11 consecutive hours of driving.

New Federal Rules on Hours Of Service

A summary of some of the major provisions covered in the July 1 compliance deadline:

  • 14-hour duty limit. A driver can be on duty 14 consecutive hours, after being off duty for 10 or more consecutive hours.
  • 11-hour driving limit. Drivers can only operate for up to 11 hours during a 14-consecutive-hour duty period.
  • 60/70-hour duty limit. Drivers cannot drive after being on duty 60 hours during any 7 consecutive days, OR they cannot drive after being on duty 70 hours during any eight consecutive days.
  • 34-hour restart. The 60- or 70-hour calculations can be “restarted” after at least 34 consecutive hours off duty.

Violators face hefty fines

Drivers and companies that largely ignore these new rules could face up penalties for each offense. Companies allowing drivers to exceed the 11-hour driving limit by more than three hours could pay up to $11,000 per violation. Individual drivers could also face civil penalties—up to $2,750 for each offense.

The complete list of the provisions of the final rule is on the FMCSA Web site at

Trucking Industry Wage Gap: Time to Re-Evaluate Relationships with Drivers?

Faced with an improving U.S. economy, trucking industry experts suggest ways to address wage gaps and the shortage of new drivers.

As America starts zooming along on the road to recovery, drivers are afraid of being left in the dust.

While the U.S. begins to climb out of an economic hole, trucking industry experts are becoming more concerned about the widening driver wage gap. With people getting back to work, and a rising demand for products to hit the road, the number of drivers and wages still falling behind other industries.

trucking wage gap

Photo via

Although concerns over driver shortages have been growing for years, the increased activity from an improving economy is making the driver gap hit trucking industry close to home.

Several facts have caused the trucking industry to worry about the future:
Writer Jon Ross attributes the driver shortfall to two factors: lifestyle and demographics. In an article in American Shipper magazine titled “Short-Changed: Trucking Industry’s Attraction to Future Drivers Lacks Incentives,” Ross suggests a shift in thinking about the role of the driver is necessary for the future health of the trucking industry.

  • The average truck driver today makes around $40,000 a year; wages that lag behind other comparable industries.
  • Experts say this will result in shortages of between 100,000 to 150,000 drivers.
  • Several carriers report driver applications in the first quarter of 2013 are off about 20 percent.
  • Most of these workers are seeking jobs in more profitable industries, like agriculture and construction, where the salaries can be higher.

According to Ross, carriers and shippers, as well as other stakeholders, must re-evaluate their relationship with drivers—things more than just higher wages:

Dave Haessly, director of distribution at Hibbett Sporting Goods, thinks trucking companies won’t be as fast to remobilize capacity once an economic turnaround occurs — either because they can’t find enough drivers or it wouldn’t be in the best financial interest of the management.

The issue of the driver gap turns out to be a two-headed sword. First, there are enough drivers to manage more business; second is preventing (or absorbing) rate hikes associated with better wages. Growing salaries might be easy, but the challenge is to have the compensation that will attract enough new drivers to fill industry needs.

To complicate matters, the newly introduced Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s Compliance Safety Accountability (CSA) enforcement program has put additional pressure on carriers to keep up employee rosters.

The “new Normal” of the trucking industry is starting to change the ways of doing business. In the past, asset-based drivers would receive a lion’s share of the business, with only a small percentage going to independent brokers. Now, in some companies, a majority of traffic goes to brokerage drivers.

To reduce the burden of the driver gap, as well as avoid general hikes that could cause rate negotiations to get even more aggressive, Ross points to the possibility of “greater flexibility” in the types of products shippers will deliver. Finding the truckers to transport goods makes it an appropriate time to move “less desirable” freight at rates of about 10 to 15 percent higher. 

Some carriers believe that the worst is not over yet. In light of that attitude, they also believe the driver gap will begin to end, only if shippers and carriers cooperate. Ross discusses this optimism with Max Fuller, chairperson and chief executive officer of US Xpress:

“Everybody will (have to) be more flexible,” Fuller said. “I think there are a lot of solutions to mitigate some of this potential hit, but it’s going to take the shippers and the carriers working together to be able to mitigate a lot of that impact.”

To read the entire article by Ross—“Short-Changed: Trucking Industry’s Attraction to Future Drivers Lacks Incentives”—visit the May 2013 online edition of American Shipper Magazine.

Searching For the Perfect Driving Job

Ask anyone in the trucking industry to describe the perfect driving job; you might not hear the same things twice.

The trucking industry is a fast growing one with a high turnover level. Keeping drivers happy by listening to their needs lowers turnover and makes for better working conditions and more productivity.

A happy trucker is a productive one

What is the perfect driving job? Is there such a thing?

Asking people in the trucking industry to describe the best driving job, and you will probably get a different answer every time.

For some truckers, the perfect gig is a good seat behind the wheel of a rig with plenty of power, enough clearance, a good set of chains, nice CB, good radio and a cab that cleans up easy. Other drivers look for things like benefits, expected mileage and operation area.

After deciding to be a driver, there are a number of puzzles to solve. What may be the perfect opportunity for one trucker might not suit someone else. There is a wide variety of positions available in the trucking market, so the best driving job for you depends on a combination of your skill, knowledge and experience.

Start by thinking of what type of truck driving job you want. Simply getting behind the wheel is not enough. You want to be happy with long or short hauls and know which one is more preferable for you.

Will you be involved in the pickup and unloading process for loads you carry? Perhaps you will be an owner-operator. Will you want to move up, becoming a manager in the future? Knowing what equipment you will use, as well as pay, expected mileage, home time and operation area.

The answer to all these questions will help you find a company that suits your requirements.

In the eyes of some drivers, the perfect driving job is all about pay. Even if a job pays well, other drivers think a fantastic job should also include health benefits. Many drivers in the trucking industry see driver training as a “meat grinder,” where the only drivers to succeed are those who are better at it and enjoy driving the most. Others see training as an indispensable part of a career.

The most popular features of the “perfect” driving job:

  • Pay and benefits
  • Home time
  • Management to employee relations (and vice versa)
  • Customer relations
  • Equipment maintenance and upkeep
  • Mobility (how a driver spends his or her time—spending time driving or just sitting around)

It is not about how terrific a job sounds on paper. It is about the way a company treats employees. With driving in the trucking industry, a perfect job is about the amount of money earned, compared to sitting around waiting. The value in a trucking job is the actual work required, time spent away from home, benefits, equipment and maintenance.

As in virtually every industry, the worst jobs, ones with the highest failure and turnover, are with companies where owners look like they have no idea what they are doing.

What makes a perfect trucking job? When management understands what it is like to be on a work floor, warehouse or on the road. Passing judgment is much more effective when supervisors understand how a decision affects the rank-and-file.

Even in the cases of managers promoted from warehouse operations, there are many with utterly no idea of the transportation end of the business.  Frequently, new rules and regulations come down to a driver, making it much harder for them to do the job. Solving many of these problems could only be a matter of dispatching more efficiently to reduce (or eliminate) wait time at warehouses. Just a small increase in efficiency for the consignee or consignor could make an inferior trucking job considerably better.

If there is one thing many drivers will agree on, you do not choose a career as a trucker. The career chooses you. The majority of truckers simply drive for the passion of driving.

Hiring Professional Truckers: Seven Ways to Get the Best!

It’s not fuel costs that are a problem with the trucking industry. It is the lack of qualified big rig operators.

Job seekers for the trucking industry come from several sources. Transportation job boards and trucking schools provide job candidates.

Seven best practices to get the right drivers for your trucking jobs.

One of the most critical issues recently facing the trucking sector has been, oddly enough, not fuel costs or rising insurance rates.

The biggest problem is a lack of drivers.

Even for businesses not directly related to the trucking industry, the shortage of qualified operators is distressing news. At the very least, it means a company has to be even more aggressive in recruitment efforts. That is if they want any chance of hiring the right people.

For jobs in the trucking industry, the cloud has come to the rescue.  Cloud-based technologies have risen to meet the challenge of driver shortages for both the trucking and related industries.  Software-as-a-Service has developed programs specifically engineered to assist companies in solving their trucker talent crunch.

The cloud has made recruitment, screening and hiring on-the-road talent both quick and convenient; some websites even have “employer” tabs, which allow a recruiter to fine-tune hiring to meet specific needs.

On these specialty websites, you—the employer—can be able to post relevant listings and openings. The convenience of cloud-based hiring keeps budget-conscious businesses from over spending on recruitment—in time, energy and money—all the while getting only the best candidates for all levels of job openings.

There are three basic realities you should know about hiring drivers:

  • You should focus your efforts on hiring a specific type of driver you want or class of trailer you want them to drive.
  • All drivers must be thoroughly vetted, to have the proper licenses or are otherwise certified: CDL’s (Commercial Driver’s Licenses) are required for all kinds of CDL jobs.
  • You need to recruit drivers through various sources—local, regional or national. Never put all your hiring eggs in one basket.

Seven best practices for hiring short- or long-haul drivers, as well as heavy equipment operators:

1     Always screen and perform background checks for any jobs requiring  driving.

Truck drivers do a lot more than transport your product. They are specialists that will maneuver massive, potentially dangerous machines over hundreds or thousands of miles of road. When choosing recruiting companies, they must require candidates go through rigorous background checks and testing.

2     Always have a large pool of candidates.

The best truck drivers for your job opening begins with certified candidates. The right recruiting websites can provide a pool of applicants, from which you can choose the best for all your truck driving job openings.

3     Advertise CDL jobs in industry-specific publications.

For  Commercial Drivers License (CDL) jobs, openings should be listed in leading print and online trucking magazines. Online job sites must also be used to bring in quality candidates for truck driving jobs. Lists of influential trucking publications are an ideal place to start; post job openings in national, regional, or local publications or upload to industry-specific websites.

4     Recruit through big-rig trucking schools.

Trucking schools an excellent source for drivers, they are filled with students who are determined and ready for further experience. Students are there with a genuine effort toward beginning a career in trucking. The majority of schools will also provide job placement in national or local trucking companies, as well as various other positions operating heavy equipment.

Start with directories of different truck driving schools and training programs. This is ideal for employers to get certified truck drivers and other heavy equipment operators.

5       Attend industry events.

Another suggestion for filling CDL jobs is attending trucking industry events.  Presence at national, regional and state events will give a great deal of recruiting possibilities. Check with online listings for dates and times conferences. For example, there is an annual Mid-America Trucking Program, compete with a Recruitment Facility. This provides event-specific support for candidates considering trucking jobs.

When attending these events, don’t forget a pile of specialized company brochures. All data should clearly list the benefits of pursuing a truck-driving job with your organization. Put your promotional items in truck-stop kiosks, as well. Don’t forget, you have to go where the people are.

Successful hiring for truck operator jobs is a combination of finding the right applicant, someone with a variety of formal licensing, a safe driving record and experience driving the type of vehicle that you need him/her to operate.

6       Be competitive, more than just pay.

Two common grievances from long-haul truck drivers—lack of income and too much time away from family. If you cannot be competitive on wages, certainly look for creative compensation. One outstanding advantage would be to ensure drivers can make it home on most weekends.

7       Remember laws on driving times.

There are state and federal laws that restrict consecutive hours truckers can drive in a 24 hour period.  They were established for a significant reason—safety! Long-haul drivers get tired and less alert after several hours of driving. Pushing the limits will put themselves and others in danger. Make sure all candidates are aware of the various Department of Transportation rules, and that they follow them closely. Your business cannot afford the liability for weary truckers.

The need for trucking employees is growing and is very competitive  To hire the best, simple hiring practices can increase your chances your trucks on the road with reliable, well-trained drivers.

Even in the best of circumstances, recruiting, hiring and onboarding, the right person can be a challenge. Consider how much worse it would be if after all that, you hire the wrong person.

The cost of a lousy hire is nothing short of incredible!

You may not even be aware of exactly how much a bad hire will set your business back. Here are only a few of the bottom-line costs:

  • Hiring costs (both for a lousy hire and their replacement)
  • Total compensation
  • Employee support costs
  • Lost Productivity
  • Money missing due to neglected sales or business opportunities
  • Loss of clients and reputation

When deciding on a recruiting method for locating and selecting candidates, the sheer number of choices can be overwhelming. In recruitment, failure is never an option since making a poor hiring decision will surely cost your company time and money.

Maybe you are thinking, “How bad could it be?” Consider this; hiring the wrong person could add up to hundreds of thousands of dollars. In some cases, the price tag of a poor hire can skyrocket into the millions of dollars!

That is money right off your bottom line.

For example, a second-level manager earning $62,000 per year could cost your business, after 2.5 years, more than $840,000 in associated costs.  The numbers might vary, but the math can apply to employees at every level of an organization.

If lost money and profits aren’t serious enough; add the potential negative impact a unsatisfactory employee can have on your company’s reputation, morale, and productivity. One lousy hire and your business could spend years to recover from the damage!

There is a way to reduce your chances of suffering with a bad hire. Ovation Technologies have all the tools your business needs to engage, screen and hire the best, most-qualified talent. From creating effective and accurate job descriptions to developing a reliable supply of candidates with the right experience, Ovation helps you hire the right person for any type of job.

Ovation even provides pre-hire criminal background checks, as well as driver’s license checks for jobs requiring drivers, truckers and heavy equipment operators.

In a new infographic from Resoomay, a terrible hire doesn’t just cost you time and money. Employees have to work harder to make up the difference, so a lousy hire might just cost your best employees, as well!

The cost of a bad hire far exceeds the cost of a new hire. So, recruit wisely. Use hiring tools such as to rank applicants, perform background screens, and electronically onboard.